Software Development Life Cycle

Software Development Life Cycle

Software Development Life Cycle is use to develop, design. To test quality of the software in any industry. This is the process of all industries. The SDLC goal is to perform the high quality software produce. Its meets or increase the expectations of the customer or consumer. It will be available on low cost to reach the goal.
· In software development process SDLC is the one of the composition.
· It is also known as the Software Development Process.
· The plan of the Software Development Life Cycle used to explain the performance of the tasks. In each step to developing the Software Development.
· In SDLC ISO/IEC 12207 is the international standard in SDLC process. Its aim is to be the standard on the international. And is the way to maintain or developing the standards of tasks. By the Software Development Life Cycle.

What Is SDLC

In software organisations used the software Development process to the Software projects. In this project they have to explain the every point. How to maintain, develop, replace, and alter or build up the particular software. The life cycle process used to improve or exceeds the quality of the software. Developing the process in the Organisation. Here we have to know the What is SDLC. And its Stages.

Different typical Life cycle stages given below in SDLC:

· Planning
· Defining
· Designing
· Building
· Testing
· Deployment
Analysis of Planning 
Planning Analysis is the one of the important. And fundamental topic in Software Development Life Cycle. It used to perform or checked by the senior managers team. By the testing the customers inputs in the various departments. They are marketing department, Sales Department, and domain expert departments in any industry. This information is gathering to produce the basic projects. To plan the basic projects to gain the standards. And it used to utility to study and take decisions in the operational, , and technical areas.
Defining Requirements
Designing Requirements done after completing the Planning and requiring process. In this step we have to define the clear vision of the product requirements. After that we have to get that clear vision. Becoming approval by the consumer or customers and the market analysts. This analysis done by the SRS. It means that Software Specification. This document has the complete information. That is to designing the product or developing the product. When was the project life cycle process done.
The Product Architecture Designing
In product architecture designed to develop the product. SRS is helps to designing the architecture that the product outcomes will be grant. In SRS the requirements specified and if the one design has specified. The product or more than one design has specified. Then we have to propose the document. That is DDS- Design Document Specification.
Building or Developing the Product
In SDLC this stage has viewed as the actual development. It will be starts with the product build performance. In this stage has been being processed the DDS programming Language code activated. This Design has been performing the detailed expression. Of the code generation, organised manner. It can be complete the designing by without difficulties.
Testing the Product
In modern SDLC models this stage is the one of the stage in all stages. In every stage of SDLC the testing activities of testing models involved. This stage has been testing the products stages. Here the product faults reported, retested, fixed, and tracked. The product will be gain the quality standard.  
Deployment in the market and its maintenance
By testing the above stages the product will be deployed. The product will launched in the market. Sometimes product launching related to the business strategy. It is depending on the organisation. Some organisation launched the product in limited segments. It is depending on the real business world.

When you Install SQL Server on a PC, a few databases installed on a PC called Sys databases. SQL Server utilizes Sys databases to store its config. Settings and data. And data about every one of the databases installed in the current SQL Server instance. System databases in SQL server used to track operations. And give a temporary work region to clients for doing databases operations.

system databases in SQL server

List of Databases in SQL Server

Below you can find the List of Databases in SQL Server 2012

  • Master database.
  • Msdb database.
  • Model database.
  • Tempdb database.
  • Resource database.

We can see All DB’s except Resource DB in Object Explorer.

The master Database

The master database contains the data about every database. Installed on the present instance of SQL Server. It additionally contains design and status about the current SQL Server instance. This information saved in Sys tables and can be accessed by DBA’s using system functions and views. When Developer creates a new DB. All corresponding details stored in master DB track the information. Try to avoid changes in master DB, because changes in a master DB entire server should corrupt.

The model Database

The model database gives you a format for making new databases. When new DB created all model DB objects copied in the new DB’s. Any changes are done in model DB changes made in user-created databases on a server.

The MSDB Database

The msdb DB have configuration data about different services. for example, SQL Server Agent, Database Mail, and Service Broker. This DB stores the job scheduling information and alerts in SQL Server Agent service. Try to avoid the changing the information in MSDB, if it requires use SP’s and views of msdb.

The TEMPDB Database

The tempdb DB is saved the temporary tables created by the users. SQL Server uses tempdb DB to save the results of complex queries. All tempdb tables, views, and databases dropped when SQL Server restarted.

The Resource Database

The Resource DB is a read database that stores all the sys objects contained in SQL Server. Sys objects contained in the DB; Yet they are available in the sys.shema in each database. mssqlsystemresource.mdf and mssqlsystemresource.ldf are the physical documents of the Resource database.

Data Analysis Expressions


Data Analysis Expressions (DAX) if it was the first time to hear the name then you has to scare. But it is not too fool you. These formulas are very easy to understand and learn. Before learning the Data Analysis Expressions you have to know one thing. That is it is not a programming language, it is formula based language. It used for measures and calculated columns by the custom calculations. used to calculate some functions. They are Excel formulas and extra functions. These are building to form the relational data. To check the performance is effective and powerful aggregations.
Data Analysis Expressions

Understanding DAX Formulas

Excel formals and Data Analysis Expressions formulas both are same. To build an equal sign or name by any given functions of expressions or name, and any arguments or values. Such as Data Analysis Expressions or Excel it offers the different type of functions. Understanding DAX Formulas or that type of function. Which they are using in work with creating conditional values. Perform calculations by using the times and dates, and strings.

Different type of DAX formulas given by in important ways in below:

· If we have to build or calculate the calculations in row-by-row basis. By using DAX formulas, DAX offers the functional language. That is use the row value or a considering value. That is results can be performing the calculations carried by the context.
· Dax can offer the different type of functions. Then the results may express as the table of the return results. These results are can offered or provided to the other functions or input.
· Dax can allow the results in Time Intelligence Functions. It used in the range of the times and dates. And they compared to the parallel periods to the results.

By using the formula bar to create Formulas:

· If we have to create the formula bar by using the Power pivot. It is same as the excel to offer the formula bar. If edit the formula bar also it used. And it used to cut the typing and syntax errors, and to auto complete the functionalities.
· To enter the name of a table: start with typing the name of the table. Auto Complete formula bar offers the drop down list. And it contains the accurate names. And they are starting with the simple names.
· To enter the name of a column: In this we have to type or select the brackets. And after we have to choose the column by the current list of the column table. In the table in the column we have to type or select the first letter or name. After we have to choose the name in the Autocomplete drop-down list.

How to Utilise the Autocomplete:

· In the nested functions. The Autocomplete formula can used in the middle of the existing functions. Before the text the introduction point has been display. In the value of the drop-down list, and after the text the introduction point has unchanged.
· If you are creating for the constants. Then you have to define the name but not display in the Autocomplete drop-down list. But also you have to type the names.
· In closing departure or match departure cannot add in the Power Pivot. The each function uses the formula or cannot save. Then also we have to make must and shout it make sure on that function.
 Hadoop Distributed File System
Before we moving to Hadoop Distributed File System. first, we are going to explain what is DFS(distributed file system).
what is DFS
      We know every system can have their own limit to store the data. And when it moves to store the data(large data) then it requires another system to stores the data.
      So that information located in different systems those connected through a network. To store this type of large data called as DFS(distributed file system).
what is HDFS
Apache Hadoop can have DFS called Hadoop Distributed File System
HDFS Design
  • Hadoop doesn’t need costly equipment to store information. Rather it intended to help normal and accessible equipment.
  • It intended to store big file( As all you realize that keeping in mind. The end goal to list entire web it might need storing records. Which are in terabytes and petabytes or more than that). Hadoop groups utilized to play out this task.
  • It intended for Streaming information get to.
Hadoop file system
HDFS: Explained above
Local: This local file system is only for disks those connected to local.
HFTP: HFTP: The reason for it to give read-just access to Hadoop distributed file system over HTTP.
HSFTP: It is like HFTP, dissimilar to HFTP it gives read on HTTPS.
HAR – Hadoop’s Archives: Used for archive records.
WebHDFS: Grant composes access to HTTP.
KFS: This is Cloud Storage System like HDFS, GFS.
Distributed RAID: This is same as HAR, Used for archive records
S3: This file system is given by Amazon S3
HDFS Cluster Nodes
There are two types of nodes in HDFS
NameNodes: It saves the name and addresses of datanodes. It stores the information in the type of a tree. Without Namenodes this entire arrangement of stroing and recovering information. Would not fill in as it is dependable to know which information put away where.
Datanodes: Datanodes utilized to store the information in the type of blocks. They store and recover information in the type of information blocks. After correspondence with Namenodes.
ASP.NET Data Source
Data bound controls connect with the data source. It may protect the complex data binding process. Deletion, sorting, insertion, and updates these are the tools to control the data. That the data offers the data bound control.
ASP.NET Data Source
Every data source control the particular data. To provide the relational database, custom classes, and XML documents, are helps in:
  • Selecting data
  • Managing presentation aspects like paging, caching, etc.
  • Managing connection
In ASP.NET have many data controlling sources. They are available in the ASP.NET Data Source Server. They are SQL Server, from ODBC or OLE DB server from business objects, from XML files.
These data controls divided in two types based on data type. They are
  • Table-based data source controls
  • Hierarchical data source controls
Hierarchical data can be control by the data source control. They are
· Site Map Data Source – It provides the binding to the supplier for the site map information.
· XML Data Source – the data essentials allowed to the strings. These strings allowed with or without schema information.

How to bind a data source control

The data source controls how to bind a data source control uses the data source. They are
Data source controls
Sql data source
Access data source
Linq data source

Data Source controls

These are the objects of the Data source view class. If you are operating the different type of data to representing the data. The different type of data can explained in sorting, filtering, etc.
The data source view can explain the abilities of the data source controls. This is the base class for Data source view for all source view classes.

The Sql Data Source Control

The SQL Data Source control means to control the relational database. The SQL server, data accessible through OLEDB. Open Database connectivity, oracle is the relational database management. There are two important properties are connecting the data base control. They are connecting String and Provider name.
The different data operations are building by the underlying. Then the data has depending on different properties in data source control.

The Object Data Source Control

The object Data Source control set up the classes. Their defined users to connect the output. This method used to connect the data bound controls. This programming internal set is like same as the SQL data Source Control.
In business objects binding there are two important aspects: they are
The bind base consists of the default, that may be stateless and the method have the mapped by the data selected. The mapped data can select, insert, update and delete semantic.
At a time the object must updated one time. And the batch operations are also supported.
This control may use to choose the work with the example. The object data source can use the student classes. This student class has three properties. They are id of the student, city, and name. It is default constructing the method. This is the get starting method for the students.
The Access Data Source Control
This data base access through the Access data source control. This represents the connection of the data. It is like the Simpler programming interface and that may based on the SQL data base source control.
This data base can open by the read only method used the Access data Source Control. It may also used for the performing data source and it may update or delete the operations. The Access Data Source control can use the parameter control and the commands.
Through ASP.NET the updates or problem can explain the Access data base applications. The Access data base can plain and the default account can create on this control. The ASP.NET application has no permission to wrote the database file.


Files and File Groups in SQL Server


   In this article, we are talking about Files and File Groups in SQL Server. when you create a simple database in SQL SERVER using CREATE DATABASE command. There are 3 types of Files in SQL SERVER DATABASE, they are

  • Primary File
  • Secondary File
  • Transaction Log File

Files and File Groups in SQL server

Primary File

           When we create a DATABASE. The Primary file Stores the startup information of the DATABASE. And it looks into the remaining files in the DB. It stores USER information and objects or secondary file also stores this data. When we create a DATABASE one primary data file created. Each DB can have one primary Data File and the primary file extension is .mdf.

Secondary File

          These secondary data files are an optional one. And these are user-defined files. This secondary file used to distribute the information to different disks (many drives). If a DB cross the most size for one file. We can use this secondary file so that DB can continue to work. And .ndf is the recommended extension for this file.

Transaction Log File

          This log file holds the log data used to restore the DB. Each DB must have one Log File. The extension for this Log file is .ldf.


Each DB can have one primary filegroup. And it contains the primary data file, secondary files those not placed in any other file groups. USER defined file groups can be made to group the information records together. For administrative, information allotment, and arrangement purposes.

Example, 3 files, info1.ndf, info2.ndf, info3.ndf can be made on three drives and assign to filegroup1. One table created particularly on file group filegroup1. Questions for information from the table will spread over the three disks. This will enhance execution. A similar execution change can be proficient by utilizing a single file made on a RAID stripe set.

All these data files located in file groups listed below

Primary File Group: The file group that contains the essential record. All sys tables allotted to this file group.

USER-Defined File Group: Any file group that is particularly made by the client (user). When the client makes or later adjusts the database.

File and Filegroup Example

USE master;





FILENAME=’c:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.1\MSSQL\data\MyDB_Prm.mdf’,





(NAME = ‘MyDB_FG1_Dat1′,

FILENAME =’c:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.1\MSSQL\data\MyDB_FG1_1.ndf’,


( NAME = ‘MyDB_FG1_Dat2′, FILENAME =’c:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.1\MSSQL\data\MyDB_FG1_2.ndf’,



( NAME=’MyDB_log’, FILENAME =’c:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.1\MSSQL\data\MyDB.ldf’,






— user-defined filegroup.



( cola int PRIMARY KEY,

colb char(8) )



Rules for Designing Files and Filegroups

  • A File or filegroup can’t be utilized by more than one DB.
  • A file can be an individual from a single file group.
  • In any file groups .ldf files not become a part


What is selenium web driver

What is Selenium web driver

Selenium web driver is one of the most important key word. In the selenium service release started. The present industry automation which can be deliver by the open source community.
we have to know what is selenium web driver. It has more advanced features. It may explained as the practical replace of the selenium RC. Selenium can be operate the different languages also. It supports that the many web browsers and HTML units. Selenium is easy to operate. Who are easy to browse in different ways, platforms, and programming languages. This has not needed the server. It meet or communicating with browser. It might completed the testing compared with the selenium RC.


Introduction to selenium web driver

In historical days the testing conducted by the . But now a days it done by the technology. The technology is updating by the software development. Now so many industries are using software technology. Then the testing conducted by the technical method. During this time manual testing will be insufficient and in effective.
Now a days in this heavy competition. Introduction to Selenium web driver become more popular in automation tools. Within a short time it becomes competitor to every technology. It is an automation tool. It contains more components. And selenium web driver is one of the most and latest component.


Limitations of Selenium Web driver

– Selenium web driver can is works at operating system level. But it may meet or communicate with the direct browser not to the server.
– If it will communicate with the different operating systems. By the different browser are activate.this will be different.
– The new browser is introduce then the selenium team can be take more time to build the steps.
– So, the selenium web driver has not been working with new browser. It take some time to launch the operating system.

Comparing Selenium web driver with the Selenium RC

Before selenium web driver the version is selenium RC(Remote control). It used for only execute or drop the tests. Selenium web driver is same as the selenium RC. It is same on supports the different web browsers for operating systems. I is using many programming languages.but also they are having several differences. They are
– Selenium web driver is easy to learn than the selenium RC. Selenium web driver is more friendly nature than the selenium RC. It is very simpler in work than the RC.
– Selenium web driver is communicate with the browser not to the server. But selenium RC communicate with the server. Selenium web driver makes the tester easier and faster than the Selenium RC.
– Selenium web driver elements are more realistic than the selenium RC. this page is easy to understand the test. The results are also become more efficient.
– HTML browser supported to the selenium web driver not to the selenium RC.
Introduction to Statistics


Introduction to Statistics is wide range of subject. In different field they are using statistics with the applications. referred that the statistics is a method. To analysing, collecting, interpreting and drawing conclusions from the information. In another method the scientists and mathematicians are says that. Introduction to Statistics developed for collecting the data from interpreting and drawing conclusions. Everywhere it deals the collecting and processing and interpreting the data. The presentation also depending on the domain of the statics. Those activities are also done by the only statistics.

Introduction to Statistics

Methods of Statistics

The Methods of Statistics can classified into two types in data science. They are
· Descriptive Statistics

· Inferential Statistics


Descriptive Statistics

It is explain basic features of the study. They offered the simple review of the samples and measures. Simple graphics analysis used to form the basis of real quality analysis of the data. The descriptive statistics in Introduction to Statistics  can broken down. Into the measures of central tendency, measures of variability. And the smallest and largest variables. The measures of central tendency includes the mean, median, and mode. The measure of variability includes the standard deviation and variance.

Inferential statistics

Here inferential statics may used to study or assume the sample data. That might be population think. And this may use to judgment in the probability. The group’s difference might be different in the one or more changes in the study.


it has some rules, regulations, concepts and procedures. They used to

– Organize: The numerical information must be in form of tables, graphs and charts.

– Understand: These statistical techniques used to take decisions in our lives and well-being.
– Make: Those are making informed decisions.


The data collected by the observations. Facts and information’s. That are comes from investigations.

· Measurement Data: Sometimes the quantitative data known as measurement data. Some instruments used to collected the data(ex. Weight, test score)
· Categories data: It is also known as the qualitative data or frequency. According to this some properties or things grouped. And the number of members are also recorded (vehicles, males/females etc.)


In the variable system the objectives. Or events can taken as properties in different values.
· Discrete Variables: The variable has limited number of values.
· Continuous variables: In this variable can take any value in many different values. Between the highest and lowest points on the measurement scale.
· Independent Variables: This variable can taken as the measured. Selected or manipulated by the researcher. It taken by the observed behaviour on the antecedent condition. The hypothesised cause-and-effect relationship may depend on the cause of the different variable. It affects the outcome.
· Dependent variable: The variable dependent on the independent variable. That may observed or measured in the response of independent variable.
· Qualitative Variable: This variable based on the categorical data.
· Quantitative Variables: This variable based on the Quantitative data.
ASP.NET Life Cycle

ASP.Net Life Cycle explains that

  • The ASP.NET edited the pages .
  • ASP.NET produce and processes the pages output is in .
  • The server pages and the applications prepared and instantiated.

The ASP.NET Life Cycle can divided into two ways. They are

  • Application life cycle
  • Page life cycle

ASP.NET Life Cycle


ASP.NET Application Life Cycle

ASP.NET includes the following application life cycle stages. They are

  • A page of accessing resource application is build by the contestants in web browser. This ASP.NET Application Life Cycle  sent to the web server by the web browser.
  • In this request is takes place then the following events are going takes place:

o An Application manager can create the object of the class.

o Hosting environment is also created. To offer the information on the resource of the object of the class

o Applications edited in the top level items.

  • In the starting stage the objects. Such as HTTP context, HTTP Response, and the HTTP request generated. Response objects are also created.
  • The detailed explanation of HTTP application generated and appoints to request. Those requests produced by the HTTP application. Various events and different doubts raised by the processing request.

ASP.NET Page Life Cycle

When we are sending the request the server memory and the processed saved in the send browser. After then it taken out from memory. These steps of every method and events are available by the need of application. If you can write our own code by cancel the default code.

The steps of page life cycle are:

  • Starting stage or Initialisation stage
  • Starting the controls on the page
  • Restoration and maintenance of the state
  • Set up the events handler codes
  • Page rendering

In ASP.NET various stages given below:

  • Page request
  • Starting of page life cycle
  • Page initialisation
  • Page load
  • Validation
  • Post back event handling
  • Page rendering
  • Unload
ASP.NET Introduction


ASP.NET Introduction


ASP.NET is also one of the parts in Microsoft .Net. It is a web development platform. This used to increase robust web applications for PC. Thorough programming model, comprehensive software infrastructure and different service applications needed. And also mobile devices required. It may be works on the top of the HTTP protocol. And it used to HTTP policies and commands to cooperation. It used to set the browser-to-server bilateral communication. ASP.NET  introduction is used to service applications may use the edit codes. These codes used to .Net framework.

These ASP.NET application server codes can write any of the following language.

  • Visual Basic.Net
  • J script
  • C#
  • J#

ASP.NET server used in the internet product interactive and data-driven web application. ASP.Net introduction consist of the large number of control. They are buttons, text boxes, configurations, labels for assembling. And manipulating code to generate the HTML pages.

Visual Web Developer

For building ASP.NET web applications, Visual Web Developer featured environment. Visual web developer provides the following features.

  • Web page design: web page is powerful. It is editor by the having WYSIWYG and editing the HTML mode. Web page is validation and intelligence in the code.
  • Page design features: The web page layout is very powerful and it is more effect on users. This site layout is having the master pages and the page display has themes, skins and designs.
  • Code editing: the code set up you to write the natural code with the web page in visual basics or C+. Syntax coloration and the intelligence include the code editing.
  • Testing and Debugging: If you have to find the errors in the program. Then the server is testing and debugging.
  • Deployment: the typical tasks are formulating by the tools. And the formulating the hosting server or to hosting provider.

ASP.NET Compiler
ASP.NET compiler is every time edited. This compiler used set up the performance optimisation. Strong typing, early binding, and other benefits. ASP.Net code is offering for the performance improvement natural codes. If once the code has been editing then the common language has been running further compiles.

ASP.NET Configuration

ASP.NET configuration used to ASP.NET applications. That the configuration. It may explains the system of your web site, web server, and individual applications. The configuration system used in the time of formulating the ASP.NET application. This application system may add or receive. The configuration setting with low effect on operational web applications.

Web Services Framework

It is a component. This is having the business functionalities that set up the applications. Web service framework is supports the ASP.NET. By using the HTTP and XMl messaging the information will be exchanging.

ASP.NET Dynamic Data Scaffolding

ASP.Net web forms created by the ASP.NET Dynamic Data Scaffolding. By this use the ASP.NET web applications. Data-driven application creation will be easy. This framework offers the scaffolding functional web site seeing and editing. It used and discovering data models.